Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was a Russian author and historian who exposed the horror of Soviet prison labor camps and gave new meaning to the word "gulag." (Gulag stands for Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps.) Solzhenitsyn spent eight years in those camps.
The available evidence includes the scanty contemporary and near-contemporary written record, and archaeological and genetic information.
The Russian Federation emerged as a great power in the early twenty-first century, also considered to be an energy superpower.
The country is considered the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic matters, and is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
Solzhenitsyn's mother never remarried, partially because of her fear that a new husband would be too strict a step-father to her son.
She was an educated woman, fluent in French and English, and supported herself and her son by working as a typist and stenographer. They were forced to rent rooms and huts from private owners because the state did not provide them with a room.